Kaushal, S.S.; McDowell, W.H.; Wollheim, W.M.; Johnson, T.A.N.; Mayer, P.M.; Belt, K.T.; Pennino, M.J. Urban Evolution: The Role of Water. Water 2015, 7, 4063-4087. Full text available at:


Kaushal, S.S., W.H. MKaushal, S.S.; McDowell, W.H.; Wollheim, W.M.; Johnson, T.A.N.; Mayer, P.M.; Belt, K.T.; Pennino, M.J. Urban Evolution: The Role of Water. Water 2015, 7, 4063-4087. Full text available at:, and W.M. Wollheim.  2014.  Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles:  past, present, and future.  Biogeochemistry 121:1–21
DOI 10.1007/s10533-014-0014-y

Special Issue of Biogeochemistry "Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles:  past, present, and future" (Editors:  Kaushal, McDowell, Wollheim).  Available at:

NPR Interview regarding special issue and overview synthesis paper can be found at: 

Anderson, T., P.M. Groffman, S.S. Kaushal, and M.T. Walter.  Denitrification in riparian zones of a headwater agricultural landscape.  2014.  Journal of Environmental Quality doi:10.2134/jeq2013.07.0303

Harrison, M.D., A.J. Miller, P.M. Groffman, S.S. Kaushal, P.M. Mayer.  2014.  Hydrologic controls on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in relict oxbow wetlands adjacent to an urban restored stream.  Journal of American Water Resources Association DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12193

Pennino, M.J., S.S. Kaushal, J.J. Beaulieu, P.M. Mayer, and C.P. Arango.  2014.  Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes.  Biogeochemistry DOI:  10.1007/s10533-014-9958-1 

Beaulieu JJ, Mayer PM, Kaushal SS, *Pennino MJ, Arango CP, Balz DA, Fritz KM, Hill BH, Elonen CM, Santo Domingo JW, Ryu H, Canfield TJ.  2014.  Effects of urban stream burial on organic matter dynamics and reach scale nitrate retention.  Biogeochemistry DOI:  10.1007/s10533-014-9971-4

Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Mayer, P. Vidon, *R.M. Smith, *M.J. Pennino,S.W. Duan, *T.A. Newcomer, C. Welty, and K.T. Belt.  2014.  Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses:  a review with management implications.  Journal of the American Water Resources Association DOI: 10.1111/jawr.12204

Mathukumalli, B.K.P., M. Maddox, A. Sood, S. Kaushal, R. Murtugudde.  2014.  Nutrients, Chlorophyll and Biotic Metrics in the Rappahannock River-Estuary: Implications of Urbanization in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA.  Marine and Freshwater Research (In Press) 

Kaushal S.S., *K.A.Delaney-Newcomb, S.E.G. Findlay, *T.A. Newcomer, *M.J. Pennino, S.W. Duan, *G. Sivirichi, A.M. Sides, and M.R. Walbridge.  2014.  Longitudinal changes in carbon and nitrogen fluxes and stream metabolism along an urban watershed continuum.  Biogeochemistry DOI:  10.1007/s10533-014-9979-9

 Newcomer Johnson, T.A., S.S. Kaushal, P.M. Mayer, M. Grese.  2014.  Effects of stormwater management and stream restoration on watershed nitrogen retention.  Biogeochemistry DOI: 10.1007/s10533-014-9999-5


Passeport, E., P. Vidon, K. Forshay, J. Hyman, S.S. Kaushal, D. Kellogg, P. Mayer, and E. Stander.  2013.   Ecological engineering practices for the reduction of non-point source N in human influenced landscapes: A guide for watershed managers.  Environmental Management DOI: 10.1007/s00267-012-9970-y

Duan, S.W. and S.S. Kaushal.  2013. Warming increases carbon-nutrient fluxes from sediments in streams across land use.  Biogeosciences 10:  1-15.

Prasad, M.B.K, S.S. Kaushal, R. Murtugudde.  2013.  Long-term pCO2 dynamics in rivers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  Applied Geochemistry  (In Press)

Wolfe, A.P., W.O. Hobbs, H.H. Birks, J.P. Briner, S.U. Holmgren, O. Ingolfsson, S.S. Kaushal, G.H. Miller, M. Pagani, J.E. Saros, R.D. Vinebrooke.  2013.  Stratigraphic expressions of the Holocene-Anthropocene transition revealed in sediments from remote lakes.  Earth Science Reviews 116:  17-34.

Kaushal, S.S. and J.M. Jeschke.  2013.  Collegiality versus competition: how metrics shape scientific communities.  BioScience 63:  155-156

Kaushal, S.S., G.E. Likens, R. Utz, M.L. Pace, M. Grese, and M. Yepsen.  2013.  Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.  Environmental Science & Technology DOI: 10.1021/es401046s


Newcomer, T.A., S.S. Kaushal, P.M. Mayer, A. Shields, E.A. Canuel, P.M. Groffman, A.J. Gold, and K.A. Delaney.  2012.  Influence of natural and novel organic carbon sources on denitrification in forest, urban degraded, and restored streams.  Ecological Monographs (In Press).

Kaushal, S.S., and K.T. Belt.  2012.  The Urban Watershed Continuum:  Evolving Spatial and Temporal Dimensions.  Urban Ecosystems 15409-435   DOI: 10.1007/s11252-012-0226-7   

Harrison, M.A., P.M. Groffman, P.M. Mayer, and S.S. Kaushal.  2012.  Nitrate Removal in Two Relict Oxbow  Urban Wetlands: A 15N Mass-balance Approach.  Biogeochemistry (In Press)

Bain, D., M. Green, J. Campbell, J. Chamblee, S. Chaoka, J. Fraterrigo, S. Kaushal,  S. Martin, T. Jordan,  A. Parolari, W. Sobczak, D. Weller, W. Wollheim, E. Boose, J. Duncan, G. Gettel, B. Hall, K. Praveen, J. Thompson, J. Vose, E. Elliott, and D. Leigh.  2012.  Legacies in Material Flux: Structural Catchment Changes Pre-date Long-term Studies.  BioScience 62: 575-584   DOI: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.6.8  

Duan, S., S.S. Kaushal, S.E.G. Findlay, L.E. Band, and P.M. Groffman.  2012. Phosphorus export across an urban to rural gradient in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 117: G01025   DOI: 10.1029/2011JG001782

Kaushal, S.S.  2012.  A Journey to the Source of the Ganges.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment  10: 105-106 

Harrison, M.D., P.M. Groffman, P.M. Mayer, and S.S. Kaushal.  2012.  Patchiness in Microbial Biomass and Activity in Geomorphic Features in Forested and Urban Restored and Degraded Streams.  Ecological Engineering 38:  1-10


Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Groffman, L.E. Band, E. Elliott, and C.A. Kendall.  2011.  Tracking nonpoint nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds.  Environmental Science & Technology 10.1021/es200779e

Harrison, M.D., P.M. Groffman, P.M. Mayer, S.S. Kaushal, and T.A. Newcomer.  2011.  In situ push-pull method to determine denitrification in alluvial wetlands in an urban landscape.  Journal of Environmental Quality 40(2):634-646.

Sivirichi, G., S.S. Kaushal, P.M. Mayer, C. Welty, K.T. Belt, K.A. Delaney, T.A. Newcomer, and M. Grese.  2011.  Longitudinal variability in streamwater chemistry and carbon and nitrogen fluxes in restored and unrestored stream networks.  Journal of Environmental Monitoring DOI: 10.1039/c0em00055h

Pickett, S.T.A., G.L. Buckley, S.S. Kaushal, Y. Williams.  2011.  Ecological science in the humane metropolis.  Urban Ecosystems 10.1007/s11252-011-0166-7

Pickett, S.T.A., M.L. Cadanasso, J.M. Grove, L.E. Band, C.G. Boone, E. Irwin, P.M. Groffman, S.S. Kaushal, V. Marshall, B. McGrath, C.H. Nilon, R.V. Pouyat, K. Szlavecz, A. Troy, and P. Warren.  2011.  Urban ecological systems:  foundations and a decade of progress.  Journal of Environmental Management 92 (2011) 331e36


Kaushal, S.S., M.L. Pace, P.M. Groffman,  L.E. Band, K.T. Belt, P.M. Mayer, and C. Welty.  2010.  Land use and climate variability amplify contaminant pulses.  EOS 91(25), 221–222

Collins, K.A., T. J. Lawrence, E.K. Stander, R.J. Jontos, S.S. Kaushal, T.A. Newcomer, N.B. Grimm, M.C. Ekberg. 2010. Opportunities and challenges for managing nitrogen in urban stormwater:  A Review and Synthesis.  Ecological Engineering doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.03.015<>

Findlay, S.E.G., W.H. McDowell, D.T. Fischer, J. Merriam, M. Daly, M.L. Pace, N. Caraco, S.S. Kaushal, and K.C. Weathers.  2010.  Inorganic carbon interference with automated measurement of dissolved organic carbon.  Limnology and Oceanography:  Methods 8:  196-201

Mayer, P.M., P.M. Groffman, E.A. Striz, and S.S. Kaushal.  2010.  Nitrogen dynamics at the ground water and surface water interface of a degraded urban stream.  Journal of Environmental Quality 39:  810–823.

Kaushal, S.S., G.E. Likens, N.A. Jaworski, M.L. Pace, A.M. Sides, K.T. Belt, D. Secor, D. Seekell, and R. Wingate. 2010.  Rising stream and river temperatures in the United States.   Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 100323112848094 DOI: 10.1890/090037<>

Gift, D., P.M. Groffman, S.S. Kaushal, P.M. Mayer, E.A. Striz.  2010.  Root biomass, organic matter and denitrification potential in degraded and restored urban riparian zones.  Restoration Ecology DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00438.


Klocker, C.A., S.S. Kaushal, P.M. Groffman, P.M. Mayer, and R .P. Morgan.  2009.  Nitrogen uptake and denitrification in restored and unrestored streams in urban Maryland, USA. Aquatic Sciences 71:  411-424.

S.J. Wenger, A.H. Roy, C.R. Jackson, E.S. Bernhardt, T.L. Carter, S. Filoso, C.A. Gibson, N.B. Grimm, W.C. Hession, S.S. Kaushal, E. Martí, J.L. Meyer, M.A. Palmer, M.J. Paul, A.H. Purcell, A. Ramirez, A.D. Rosemond, K.A. Schofield, T.R. Schueler, E. Sudduth, and C.J. Walsh.  2009.  Top urban stream ecology research questions:  what we know, what we don’t know, and what we need to know to better manage urban streams.  Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28:  1080–1098.

Lookingbill, T.R, S.S. Kaushal, R.H. Gardner, A.J. Elmore, R.P. Morgan, R.H. Hilderbrand, K.N. Eshleman, W.R. Boynton, M.A. Palmer, and W.C . Dennison.  2009.  Altered ecological flows blur boundaries in urbanizing watersheds.  Ecology and Society 14: 10. Full Article<>.

Kaushal, S.S.  2009.  Chloride.  Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. Ed. G.E. Likens. Elsevier.

Hopfensperger, K.N., S.S. Kaushal, Findlay, S.E.G., and J.C. Cornwell.  Influence of plant communities on denitrification in a tidal freshwater wetland of the Potomac River, U.S.A.  2009.  Journal of Environmental Quality 38: 618-626


Shields, C.A., L.E. Band, N.L. Law, P.M. Groffman, S.S. Kaushal, K. Savvas, and G.T. Fisher.  Streamflow distribution of nitrogen export from urban-rural catchments in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  2008.  Water Resources Research 44 W09416 doi:10.1029/2007WR006360.

Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Groffman, L.E. Band, C.A. Shields, R.P. Morgan, M.A. Palmer, K.T. Belt, G. T. Fisher, C.M. Swan, and S.E.G. Findlay.  2008.  Interaction between urbanization and climate variability amplifies watershed nitrate export in Maryland.  Environmental Science & Technology 42, 5872–5878, 2008. 10.1021/es800264f

Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Groffman, P.M. Mayer, E. Striz, E.J. Doheny, A.J. Gold.  2008.  Effects of stream restoration on denitrification in an urbanizing watershed.  Ecological Applications 18:  789-804.

Elmore, A.J. and Kaushal, S.S.  2008. Disappearing headwaters: Patterns of stream burial due to urbanization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6, doi:10.1890/070101

Craig, L.S., M.A. Palmer, D.C. Richardson, S. Filoso, E.S. Bernhardt, B.P. Bledsoe, M.W. Doyle, P.M. Groffman, B. Hassett, S.S. Kaushal, P.M. Mayer, S.M. Smith, and P.R. Wilcock.  2008.  Stream restoration strategies for reducing river nitrogen loads.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment DOI: 10.1890/070080


Kaushal, S.S., W.M. Lewis, Jr., and J.H. McCutchan, Jr.  2006.  Land use change and nitrogen enrichment of a Rocky Mountain watershed. Ecological Applications 16:  299-312.

Tripler, C.E., S.S. Kaushal, G.E. Likens, and M.T. Walter.  2006.  Patterns in potassium dynamics in forest ecosystems.  Ecology Letters 9: 451-466.

Pellerin, B., S.S. Kaushal, and W.H. McDowell.  2006.  Does anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment increase organic nitrogen concentrations in runoff from forested and human-dominated watersheds?  Ecosystems 9: 852-864.


Kaushal, S.S. and W.M. Lewis, Jr.  2005.  Fate and transport of dissolved organic nitrogen in minimally disturbed streams of Colorado, U.S.A. Biogeochemistry 74:  303-321.

Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Groffman, G.E. Likens, K.T. Belt, W.P. Stack, V.R. Kelly, L.E. Band, and G.T. Fisher.  2005.  Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern U.S.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:  13517-13520.

Lajtha, K., S. Crow, Y. Yano, S.S. Kaushal, E. Sulzman, J.D.H. Spears and P. Sollins. 2005. Detrital controls on dissolved organic matter in soils: a field experiment. Biogeochemistry 76:  261-281.


McDowell, W.H., A. Magill, J.A. Aitkenhead-Peterson, J.D. Aber, J. Merriam, and S.S. Kaushal. 2004. Effects of chronic nitrogen amendment on dissolved organic matter and inorganic nitrogen in soil solution. Forest Ecology and Management 196: 29-41.

Kaushal, S.S. and W.M. Lewis, Jr. 2003. Patterns in the chemical fractionation of organic nitrogen in Rocky Mountain streams. Ecosystems 6: 483-492.


Wolfe, A.P., S.S. Kaushal, J.R. Fulton, and D.M. McKnight. 2002.  Spectrofluorescence of sediment humic substances and historical changes of lacustrine organic matter provenance in response to atmospheric nutrient enrichment. Environmental Science & Technology 36: 3217-3223.

Kaushal, S.S. and J. Walsh. 2002. Comparison of nitrogen isotope ratios in feathers from seven species of Colorado breeding birds. Western North American Naturalist 62: 246-248.


Kaushal, S. and M.W. Binford. 1999. Relationship between C:N ratios of lake sediments, organic matter sources, and historical deforestation in Lake Pleasant, Massachusetts. Journal of Paleolimnology 22: 439-442

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